Documents from Bulgaria:
Documents from Kyrgyzstan:
Documents from Ukraine:
Documents from Uzbekizstan:
WASH coalition in Bulgaria:
WSSCC National Coordinator: Diana Iskreva-Idigo
Executive Director Earth Forever, Bulgaria
Tel./Fax: +359 42 63 46 41
WASH coalition in Kyrgyzstan:
WSSCC National coordinator: Zura Mendikulova
513 Frunze Street Apt. 5
Tel.: 996 312 215 853
WASH coalition in Ukraine:
WSSCC National coordinator: Anna Tsvietkova
Water and Sanitation Programme Coordinator
National Environmental NGO MAMA - 86
4 Yangel Academician Str., apt.126,
Kyiv 03057, Ukraine
Tel.: + 38 044 456 1338
Fax:+ 38 044 453 4796
WASH coalition in Uzbekizstan
WSSCC National coordinator: Oral Ataniyazova
P. O. Box 27,
ul. Sharafa Rashidova 39a,
Fact Sheet Bulgaria
Bulgaria is situated in the South-Eastern Europe at the core of the Balkans. Its territory covers about 111,000 sq. km, 72% of it lowlands.
The population is 7 million, 70% of the citizens living in the urban areas. The total amount of settlements is 5,376. The birth rate is low and the rate of population growth has been negative for years. The rate of migration is negative. Due to higher mortality rate, very low birth rate and emigration the population has been reduced by some 2 million people compared to 1989.
|Handwashing Facility in UDD Toilet||Typical Village Pit Latrine|
The climate varies from temperate in the North to Mediterranean in the South. The mean annual temperature varies from 10.0°C to 13.5°C in the lowlands, and reaches -3°C at the highest pick on the Balkans - Musala (the Rila Mountain). The highest monthly means rise up to 25°C in July and August. The absolute temperature maximums do not show significant differences between the North and the South and reach more than 45°C. The mean annual rainfall varies from 440 mm to 600 - 620 mm in the lowlands up to 800 - 1300 mm high in the mountains. The maximum mean monthly rainfall varies in different parts of the country: May - June in the North and November - December in the South. The minimum monthly mean rainfall comes in February to the North and in August to the South. The total mean rainfall is about 76.5 billion m3 per year in Bulgaria, 57% of it evaporates, 25.5% enters the river systems and 17.5% penetrates in the soil.
The rivers are generally small and most of them get dry almost every summer. Unfortunately, Bulgaria is among the poorest in water resources countries in Europe.
The mean natural river flow, without the surface effluent of the Danube, is about 19.5 billion cubic meters per year. In very dry years it is about twice less.
The dams are a very typical element of Bulgarian environment. There are more than 2000 reservoirs in the country, their total capacity is 6.6 billion cubic meters, 84.9% of it is in the biggest 48 of them. The total capacity of 1900 of the reservoirs is 0.7 billion cubit meters, each of them with a capacity less than 1 million cubic meters. Most of the largest dams in Bulgaria were built in 50s and 60s.
The ground water is responsible for 25-30% of the water resources in Bulgaria. The quantity of ground water is calculated to more than 8 billion cubic meters. There are more than 1,000 springs of mineralized and thermal water convenient for balneo resorts.
Though Bulgaria is poor in water resources, the consumption of water is quite high, the average usage is 400 square meters per citizen per year; including 137 liters per citizen per day for household needs. In the water supply system, the underground water/surface water ratio is 60:40. 98% of the population has access to piped water supply. At the same time 40% (and 50% of the population in the country) of the water supplied settlements have irregular water supply. This varies from settlement to settlement and in different seasons. At the same time the leakages from the water supply system is in average over than 50% and often reaches 60-70%, up to 85%. The very high consumption is determined by comparatively low technological level of industry and due to this very high water consumption for industrial needs, extremely high losses of water in water supply infrastructure through leaching, etc. If we take into consideration, the pollution of water resources, the situation is defines as risky for the social and economic development of the country. In other words, just small reduction of precipitation amount may lead to serious threads for economic development and everyday life of people.
The planned intermitted water supply is one of the main problems of population in many communities. This means that they do not have water supply for several hours each day or even do not have water every other day on annual schedule. The schemes may differ a lot depending on water availability, water pressure in the pipeline or altitude and inclination of the community/ neighborhood/ housing. In dry summers most of the villages practically may not have tapped drinking water supply for weeks.
While the water supply infrastructure is relatively well developed and covers almost all the population, there is a relatively low coverage by sewage system and urban wastewater treatment services.
Average annual water usage of Bulgaria is 10-12 billion m3
Financing water and sanitation