International Year of Sanitation Presentation

Protection of Water Against Nitrate Pollution

Protocol on Water and Health 2006

Protocol on Water and Health

Joint Report Regional Wash Conference

Joint Report Sanitation Status

Documents from Bulgaria:

Access to Drinking Water and Sanitation G. Bardarska

CEHAPE Regional Priority Goal 1

Environment at a Glance Ukraine

Europe's Sanitation Problem

Sanitation is a Priority Presentation

Sanitation Profile Bulgaria

Stockholm Water Week 2008

Suatainable Sanitation for Rural Bulgaria

Достъп до информация за водите

ЕкоСан в България

План за управление на околна среда

Проект на Стратегия за устойчиво развитие на Република България

Стратегия за развитие на ВиК услугите на територията на Столична Община

Закон за регулиране на водоснабдителните и канализационни услуги

Национална стратегия за управление и развитие на водния сектор

Защо е важно да пестим вода

Documents from Kyrgyzstan:

Hygiene and Sanitation Rural Areas Kyrgyzstan 2008

Kyrgyzstan 2007

Policy Framework for Wnvironment and Sustainable Development Kyrgyzstan

Safe and Profitable Toilets

Safe Water and Sanitation

Suatainable Sanitation Otabek Bozarbaev

Swiss Development Cooperation in Water Sector

Проект по Гигиене и Санитарии в Сельской местности: 4, 5, 6

Сельский Проект Гигиены и Санитарии

Проект по Гигиене и Санитарии в Сельской Местности

Kонтрольный перечень вопросов при приемке туалетов

Сельское водопроводно -
канализационное хозяйство в
Кыргызской Республики

Безопасные и выгодные туалеты

Руководство по проектированию  санитарных сооружений

Стратегия Швейцарии по Центральной Азии в секторе водопользования на 2002 – 2006

Сельские бани и здоровье

Documents from Ukraine:

Heat Water Sanitation Ukraine

National Plans for Financing Water and Sanitation

Right to Water and Sanitation

Role of NGOs for Water and Sanitation

Rural Water and Sanitation Ukraine

Sanitation and Epidemiology

Urban Water and Sanitation Management

Water and Sanitation Coverage Ukraine

Water and Sanitation Planning

Water Supply and Sanitation Ukraine Vladimir Kuznyetsov

Вода, санітарія і гігієна для всіх

Опитът на Мама Мама--86’’ за въвеждане на сухи разделящи урината тоалетни в Украйна

Ефективно управление на канализационната
система

Documents from Uzbekizstan:

Access to Sanitation

Hygienic Aspects of Sanitation Uzbekistan Vietnam

Sanitation Profile Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan Case Study

Uzbekistan Policy of Water Management and Usage Presentation

Water and Sanitation Coverage Uzbekistan

Water and Sanitation for Schools Uzbekistan

Water Supply and Sanitation Uzbekistan

Water Critical Resource for Uzbekistan Future

Water Sanitation Hygiene Aral Sea Area

WB Status of Contracts Uzbekistan 2007

Всемирный Банк в Центральной Азии

Water - Critical Resource for Uzbekistan’s Future:
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Вода - жизненно важный ресурс для будущего Узбекистана: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Сув - Ўзбекистон келажаги учун муҳим ҳаётий ресурс: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

WASH coalition in Bulgaria:

WSSCC National Coordinator: Diana Iskreva-Idigo
Executive Director Earth Forever, Bulgaria

Tel./Fax: +359 42 63 46 41
www.earthforever.org

diskreva@earthforever.org

WASH coalition in Kyrgyzstan:

WSSCC National coordinator: Zura Mendikulova

513 Frunze Street Apt. 5 Bishkek,Kyrgyzstan
Tel.: 996 312 215 853
zura1958@yahoo.com

WASH coalition in Ukraine:

WSSCC National coordinator: Anna Tsvietkova
Water and Sanitation Programme Coordinator
National Environmental NGO MAMA - 86

4 Yangel Academician Str., apt.126,
Kyiv 03057, Ukraine
Tel.: + 38 044 456 1338
Fax:+ 38 044 453 4796
atsvet@mama-86.org.ua

www.mama-86.org.ua

WASH coalition in Uzbekizstan

WSSCC National coordinator: Oral Ataniyazova

P. O. Box 27, ul. Sharafa Rashidova 39a, 742012 Nukus, Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan
atoral@yandex.ru

Sanitation situation in rural Kyrgyzstan

 

Public sanitation systems

During the Soviet time, most of the schools used to have flush toilets, though not all of them. They were using a septic pit that was periodically emptied. Due to aging and poor maintenance, most of these systems deteriorated and fail to serve. Toilets on septic pits were built in some schools (incl. multiple toilets: a line of toilet holes in a large “lift-toilet”).

The hospitals and polyclinics are public buildings, visited by citizens, and they need to have public toilets to ensure proper hygiene. They also serve as an example of adequately maintained facilities for the visitors.

 

Private sanitation systems

Promotion of household toilets has been done for years and all village homes have their own toilets; though the quality differs significantly from one place to another.

Flush toilets
This system depends fully on regular water supply. These toilets discharge in septic pits in villages as there are no sewers there. In case of intermittent water service, these toilets become very fast unhygienic and non-usable. Water supply in villages might stop because of water deficiency in the system or due to freezing.

Simple pit latrines on septic pits
These are widely used in rural Kyrgyzstan. Every home would have a pit latrine as a major sanitation facility. The standard pit latrine prevents direct access to feces; it is built to infiltrate in ground. Kyrgyz authorities claim that there are no parasites just 10 m away from the pit latrine, and it is safe for groundwater. At the same time, international research proves that pit latrines endanger ground water quality and often pollute drinking water sources. Such pollution is responsible for a number of water borne and parasitic diseases. The authorities though admit that pit latrines are not attractive due to offensive smell and abundance of flies.

Ventilated pit latrines (VIP)
VIP latrines are improved form of pit latrine. Kyrgyz authorities promote VIP latrines because according to them they avoid the main problems linked to simple pit latrines: flies and offensive smell. At the same time, the threat to ground and drinking water is as high as with the pit latrines. The main difference between these two forms of toilets is that the VIP latrine is built with a ventilation system: a pile ventilating the pit under the toilet slab and bringing the exhaust high above the roof of the VIP latrine. Drawing bellow illustrates the construction elements of the VIP latrine. This toilet has simple construction requirements and is cheap.


Ventilated Pit Latrine (VIP)

Low flush pit latrine with bucket flush
In this toilet, the feces are deposited in the slab/toilet seat, and after this flush sway with water from bucket. The septic pit is usually some distance away from the toilet and a pipe is used to discharge the excrements in the pit.

The advantage of these toilets according to Kyrgyz authorities is that there are no offensive smell and flies; the main disadvantage is that they depend fully on regular water supply. In long cold winters, these systems freeze in the way they are built in Kyrgyzstan.

 
VIP Latrine   Traditional Toilet

Kyrgyz authorities and sanitation experts believe that VIP latrine best meets the needs and suits the local conditions in Kyrgyz villages. These are promoted for schools, village hospitals and households within the framework of a number of governmental projects funded by international donors or loans.

NGO community is promoting dry urine-diverting (UDD) toilets as alternative for the usual pit latrines and the VIP latrines promoted by the government. The advantage of UDD toilets is that they do not attract flies, do not create offensive smell; they also do not pollute ground and drinking water. They do not need regular water supply.

UDD toilets promote healthy environment. Of course, people can benefit from improved water supply system only in case of simultaneous improvement of hygienic behavior and sanitation conditions. Many intestinal and parasitic infections can appear not only due to consumption of contaminated drinking water, but also through dirty hands and fecal and oral transmission way. Reduction of parasitic re-infection rate among primary school children will indicate behaviour change after information on hygiene and sanitation has been received.

Certain rate of behaviour change will influence on prevalence of the disease before and after intervention.

Data from laboratory examination of children

 

Villages where
examination was  taken

 

Lambliasis

Enterobiasis

Oblast

N. of
villages

N. of first
formers

N. of
cases

%

N. of
cases

%

Osh

6

201

76

38%

150

75%

Osh

 

178

33

19%

36

20%

Batken

6

232

137

59%

182

78%

Batken

 

215

42

20%

83

39%

Jalalabat

6

206

96

47%

160

78%

Jalalabat

 

188

39

21%

33

18%

Chui

6

168

78

46%

122

73%

Chui

 

229

33

14%

28

12%

Total:

24

807

387

48%

614

76%

Total:

24

810

147

18%

180

22%


Governmental project implemented by the Republican Centre for Health Promotion, Ministry of Health of the Kyrgyz Republic - Rural Hygiene and Sanitation Project Kyrgyzstan, implemented in collaboration with WS Atkins International Limited Epso, has published the following info about hygiene behavior of village population in Kyrgyzstan:













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